Redlining, a discriminatory practice which distorted the American housing market, continues to impact Black communities in profound ways. This blog post explores the lasting effects of redlining on neighborhoods and families, as it delves into the connection between redlining and experiences of disadvantage and trauma, highlighting the importance of understanding and validating these struggles.
Unveiling the Impact
Redlining and Experiences of Disadvantage In the 1930s, the Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC) created maps that graded neighborhoods for housing investment. Black neighborhoods were unfairly given low grades, marked in red on the maps, leading to the term "redlining." Numerous studies have shown a clear link between redlining and various health problems. These include issues related to maternal and infant health, general well-being, mental health, infectious diseases, unhealthy behaviors, preventive measures, heat-related illnesses, childhood lead poisoning, and the need for surgery (Swope et al., 2022). The evidence points to the enduring impact of redlining on the health of Black communities.
The Struggle of Neighborhood Deprivation and Trauma: Redlining has left a legacy of deprivation in affected neighborhoods. A study by the Federal Reserve of Chicago revealed that neighborhoods graded poorly by the HOLC experienced lower homeownership rates, declining property values, higher rents, and more vacant homes for many years (Aaronson et al., 2020). These neighborhoods also became increasingly segregated, with racial divisions deepening until the 1970s or 1980s before starting to improve. Although segregation has reduced in recent years, white neighborhoods remain predominantly white, while Black neighborhoods are becoming more diverse with the arrival of LatinX individuals (Frey, 2018).
The impact of neighborhood deprivation extends to the trauma experienced by residents. Research has shown that early life adversity and social disadvantage in neighborhoods are linked to various health issues, disabilities, premature death, early puberty, accelerated aging at a cellular level, and changes in brain development that affect emotional processing (McCrory et al., 2017; Nelson et al., 2020; Rod et al., 2020; Belsky, 2019; Colich et al., 2020). Traumatic stress resulting from childhood adversity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has also been associated with faster aging at a genetic level (Wolf et al., 2018).
Understanding the Reality
Examining Neighborhood Deprivation: To gain further insights into the connection between neighborhood deprivation, redlining, and trauma, researchers have used the Child Opportunity Index (COI 2.0). This index measures opportunities and highlights the extent of deprivation in neighborhoods. It looks at factors such as health, education, and economic indicators to assess how well a neighborhood supports the growth and development of children. The findings reveal significant disparities, with White children scoring an average of 73, while Black children only reach an average of 24. Shockingly, about 75% of Black children live in neighborhoods classified as having moderate or low opportunities (Acevedo-Garcia et al., 2020).
The historical practice of redlining continues to shape the lives of Black Americans. Its repercussions are evident in the challenges faced by individuals and communities, from health disparities to neighborhood deprivation and trauma. Recognizing and understanding these struggles is crucial to addressing the systemic inequities that persist in our society. By amplifying the voices and experiences of Black Americans affected by redlining, we can work towards building a more just and inclusive future for all.